A calendar can be displayed at five levels of detail. The levels, from the greatest detail to the least are: an individual scheduled item, a day, a week, a month, and a year. The commands to show these levels are the first five items in the 'View' menu (see Figure 2 ). In the discussion that follows, these are referred to as the view- level commands.
During normal use of the Calendar Tool, the user has one or more viewing windows displayed on the screen. The most recently selected window is called current. When the user wants to view the calendar at a different level than is displayed in the current window, she chooses one of the five view-level commands.
Each of the five viewing levels is displayed in a separate level-specific window, sized appropriately to fit its contents. For example, if the user executes a 'View Day' command followed by a 'View Year' command, both a daily and yearly window are displayed on the screen.
By default, a single window is used at each of the five view levels. Hence, there are up to five windows for the view-level commands, each holding the result of the most recently executed command at a particular level. For example, if the user moves from one day to the next at the daily level, the day-level display window is changed, but a new window is not created.
The user may change the default display style by enabling multi-window viewing mode. In this mode, the results of every view command are shown in a separate new window, even for commands at the same level. For example, if the user executes two successive 'View Month' commands in multi-window mode, the results are shown in two separate month-view windows. Complete details of multi-window viewing are described in Section 2.3.5.
By default, the target date for all view-level commands is today's date. The
user can select another target by clicking on a desired target in the current
window. Complete details of target date selection are covered in
22.214.171.124. Day View
To view the daily details for today's date, the user chooses the 'View
Day' menu command. In response, the system displays a window of the form
shown in Figure 11.
Figure 11: Day view.
In Figure 11, the user is viewing the details of Wednesday, September 9. The items shown in Figure 11 reflect a number of scheduling commands having been performed by the user, subsequent to the commands illustrated in the scenario of Section 2.2. In particular, the user has scheduled some typical items such as meetings, lunch dates, and class lectures.
The day view shows the scheduled items for a day in abbreviated form. The column on the left lists the starting times for scheduled items. The wider column on the right shows the item titles. The displayed title for one item is always a single line high; long titles are viewed by horizontal scrolling or enlarging the display window as necessary. The following are details of how information is presented in a day view:
At the top of the day view is a full description of the day of the week, month,
and year. Immediately to the left and right of the description are arrow
buttons used to change the display to the previous or next calendar day. For
example, when the user chooses the right-pointing arrow in the display of
Figure 11, the display changes to that shown in Figure 12.
-- Show a view of the next day --
Figure 12: Result of pressing the next day arrow.
The following options are available to control the format of the day display:
As an example of alternate option settings, Figure 13 shows a day view of the
same information shown in Figure 11, with the following non-default option
settings: normal time range 7AM to 6PM; time increment of 1/2 hour; increment
height equal to one line; show 24-hour display; show exact time; hide dashed
lines; and hide extension arrows.
Figure 13: Day display with non-default option settings.
To illustrate the display of overlapping items, Figure 14 shows an updated
version of the daily schedule shown in Figures 11 and 13.
Figure 14: Day view with overlapping times.
In displaying overlapping items horizontally, the system attempts to display the full width of all items in one screen. If there is insufficient physical screen width to display all items full width, the system truncates in the same manner as in a normal daily display. The columns of the overlapping display view are all of equal width. If the display window is resized, each column is resized proportionally and equally. Further exact details of truncation and display resizing are covered in Section .
Figure 15 shows the same information as
after the user has changed the overlapping display option from
horizontal (the default) to vertical.
-- Show what the single-column overlapping display looks like. --
Figure 15: Day view with overlapping times, displayed vertically.
-- Show a view of how scrolling in a row looks. --
Figure 16: Transient scrolling in a day view.
Transient scrolling is available for any row in which the number of items is greater than the increment height (not just for rows with overlapping items). Furthermore, a transient scrollbar only appears in a row for which it is necessary. If the user selects a row where all items are visible, no scrollbar appears. A displayed transient scrollbar disappears when the user clicks anywhere outside of the row in which the scrollbar appears. This means that at most one transient scrollbar is visible at any time.
Transient scrollbars are also used in the monthly view described in
where their use is likely to be more frequent than in a daily view.
126.96.36.199. Week Views
After the day view, the next larger-grain level of viewing is a week. There
are two choices for the format of the week view: table and lists. These
choices are available on a submenu when the user chooses the 'Week'
command from the 'View' menu. A display of the table-style week view
is shown in Figure 17.
Figure 17: Table-style week view.
When the user chooses either style of week view, the displayed week is the one that contains the most recently selected day. Here for example, the user is viewing the week that contains the most recently viewed day of Wednesday, September 9. The current date, that is today's date, is highlighted with a darkened border in the week display. In this scenario, for example, the current date is Wednesday, September 9.
The table-style weekly view shows items in the same format as the day view, except with narrower columns to accommodate all the days of the week. Each item is shown with as much of the title as fits horizontally within its display area. The columns of the weekly table view are all of equal width. If the display window is resized, each column is resized proportionally and equally. At the top of the weekly view is the exact description of the week, with arrow buttons to go to the previous and next weeks.
A notable aspect of the weekly table view is the display format for days that contain overlapping items. In the example shown in Figure 17, there are three overlapping appointment times. These overlaps are indicated by solid right- pointing arrows wherever overlap occurs. When the user presses a right- pointing arrow, the display for the item scrolls to the left to allow overlapping items to be viewed.
Figure 18 further illustrates the display of overlapping weekly table items.
Figure 18: Clarification of overlap in a weekly table view.
The change illustrated in Figure 18d illustrates two display details:
When necessary, a left-pointing arrow appears to allow scrolling back. Examples of left-pointing arrows are shown in Figures 18b, 18c, and 18d. Note that the 2 PM item in Figure 18b has both left- and right-pointing arrows, since there are overlapping items on both sides. When there are no further overlapping items, the left- or right-pointing arrow disappears, as appropriate. Disappearance of the right-pointing arrow is illustrated in the Wednesday 8 AM item in Figure 18c and the Friday 9 AM item in Figure 18d.
All of the display options available for the day view are also available for the table-style week view. In addition, the following display options are available for the week view only:
The display of a list-style weekly view is shown in Figure 19.
Figure 19: List-style week view.
For each day of the week, the items for that day are listed consecutively in the column for that day. The items in each daily list are sorted first by start time (earliest first), second by duration (shortest first), and third by alphabetic order of the title. No further sorting criteria are necessary, since the system disallows multiple scheduled items with exactly the same values for start time, duration, and title. This and other scheduling restrictions are discussed further in Section 2.9 .
A subset of the table-style display options are applicable for the list-style weekly view. These options are:
An example of the month view was shown originally in the initial screen
configuration, since the month view is the standard default. It is chosen
explicitly with the 'Month' command from the 'View' menu.
Figure 20 shows the result of the user making this selection for the month of
Figure 20: Month view.
In the month view, the display format for an individual day is the same as the
list-style weekly view. That is, the time and title for each item are
displayed in a vertically-formatted list, sorted by start time, duration, and
title. Since the height of each day in the month view is considerably shorter
than in the week view, a transient vertical scrollbar is provided when the
number of items in a day is greater than fits vertically in the display box for
a day. This is precisely the same form of
transient scrolling provided in a Day view.
In the month view, "transient" means that the scrollbar only appears when the
user clicks within a day for which scrolling is necessary. For example, if the
user clicks within the display box for Wednesday September 24 (in Figure 20),
the scrollbar appears as shown in Figure 21.
Figure 21: Transient scrolling in a month view.
A subset of weekly list-style display options are applicable to the month view. These options are:
The largest grain view available is a year, as shown in Figure 22.
Figure 22: Year view.
Unlike the smaller-grain views, the yearly view shows no information about
scheduled items. The user may select any date as the target of another view
command to show item details.
188.8.131.52. Scheduled Item View
The user may view the full scheduling details for an item shown in any day,
week, or month display. To do so, the user selects the item time or title and
then chooses the 'View Item' menu command. A short cut to view item
details is to double click on the item time or title. Figure 23 shows the
result of the user having selected to view the item for 8 AM September 11.
Figure 23: Details of selected scheduled item.
The item-level display has the same data fields as the scheduling dialog shown in Figure 4 .
The item display differs from the scheduling dialog in the command buttons along the bottom of the dialog window. Specifically, the scheduling dialog has only 'OK' and 'Cancel' command buttons. In the item display there are buttons to 'Change' the item, 'Delete' the item, and 'Cancel' the dialog. There are also 'Previous' and 'Next' buttons to view the chronologically previous and next scheduled items.
To change the displayed item, the user makes one or more changes in the item data fields and then presses the 'Change' button. If the user presses 'Change' without having performed any data-field editing, the system responds with an explanatory error dialog.
To delete the displayed item, the user presses the 'Delete' button.
The system responds with a confirmation dialog. If the user confirms
affirmatively, the system deletes the scheduled item and removes the display
from the screen. The effects of a delete command are potentially wide-ranging,
particularly with meetings with multiple attendees. The full details of item
deletion are covered in
184.108.40.206. Details of Selecting Viewing Targets
The first five commands in the 'View' menu apply to a user-selected target in the calendar display, or to a default target. To select a viewing target, the user clicks on a desired location somewhere in the current display window. The "current display window" is defined precisely as the display window most recently generated by the system or the window most recently made current by the user having clicked on it or selected it in the 'View Windows' menu. The following are the specific details for how a viewing target is selected in the current display window:
For the 'View Item' command, an item is selected as follows:
For the 'View Day' command, a day is selected as follows:
For the 'View Week' command, a week is selected as follows:
For the 'View Month' command, a month is selected as follows:
In all of the cases where a name or numeric date is selected, the system
confirms the selection by highlighting the name or date in reverse video. For
example, Figure 24 shows how the system highlights the date of September 1 when
the user clicks on that date number in the monthly display.
Figure 24: Reverse video selection highlighting.
Immediately below the 'Year' on the 'View' menu are the three commands 'Next', 'Previous', and 'Goto Date'. These commands provide a quick means to go to another calendar date than is in the current display.
The effect of 'Next' and 'Previous' is based on the level of the current display. At a given level, 'Next' changes the display so that the next calendar unit at that level is displayed; 'Previous' operates analogously in the backward-time direction. An example of the effect of the 'Next' command is illustrated above in transition from Figure 11 to Figure 12.
The right and left arrows in the banner of each view-level display are shortcuts for the 'Next' and 'Previous' commands, respectively. Pressing one of these arrows has the same effect as the corresponding menu command, with one exception. The exception is that the setting of multi-window mode is ignored when the arrow keys are used. That is, pressing an arrow key always changes the display in the window to which it is attached, and never displays a new window. Further details of the multi-window display option are covered in Section 2.3.5.
When the user selects the 'Goto Date' command, the system displays the
dialog shown in Figure 25.
Figure 25: Goto date dialog.
The user may enter dates in a variety of common formats. Details of these
formats are covered in
If the user enters an improperly formated date string, the system enters the
string "INVALID DATE" in the text-entry box of the dialog, whereupon the user
may re-enter the date or press the 'Cancel' button to cancel the
operation entirely. Further details of this and other error conditions are